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Petroleum is a mixture of more than 8,000 hydrocarbons (and small amounts of sulfur compounds) of different molecular sizes. Petroleum must be processed before it can be used to make petroleum products suitable for various purposes. Fractionation is a common treatment method, which uses the principle of different molecular sizes and boiling points to separate hydrocarbons from petroleum, and then chemical treatment is used to improve the value of products.
In industry, petroleum is heated to 400 ~500 degrees Celsius to turn it into steam and then fed into the fractionator. In the fractionator, the higher the position, the lower the temperature. Petroleum vapor will gradually liquefy, cool and condense into liquid fractions during its ascent. Gaseous fractions with smaller molecule and lower boiling point rise slowly along the tower and condense at the top of the tower, such as fuel gas (Fuel Gas), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG.), light oil (Naphtha), kerosene (Kerosene), etc. The liquid fractions with larger molecule and higher boiling point condensate at the bottom of the tower, such as diesel oil, lubricating oil and wax. The viscous residues left at the bottom of the tower are asphalt and heavy oil, which can be used as raw materials for coking and asphalt production or as boiler fuel. Different fractions are collected at various layers and transported through conduits to the fractionator. These fractions are petrochemical raw materials, which can be made into many chemicals.
Crude petroleum is a component with low fractionation temperature and small molecule. It can be used as fuel and gasoline, such as liquefied natural gas (mainly composed of methane, containing a small amount of ethane, propane, butane, ethylene) or liquefied petroleum gas (mainly composed of propane, butane, propylene, ethylene) or as solvent, such as hexane. A kind of light oil, also known as petroleum brain, is a fractionated mixture with boiling point higher than gasoline but lower than kerosene. It can be divided into light petroleum brain and heavy petroleum brain. Petroleum brain can be used as gasoline and aviation fuel oil after dealcoholization and acidification reaction. Light petroleum brain can produce gasoline or petrochemical raw materials with high octane content through medium reaction, such as benzene, toluene, xylene, etc. It can also produce ethylene, propylene, butene, pentane and aromatic hydrocarbons through pyrolysis reaction.
Characteristics of oil fractionation microwave drying equipment:Rapid drying of microwave drying equipment.Microwave drying equipment is completely different from traditional drying methods. It is a process in which the dried material itself becomes a heater without heat conduction. Therefore, although it is a material with poor heat conductivity, drying temperature can also be achieved in a short time.Drying uniformity of microwave drying equipment.Regardless of the shape of each part of the object, the microwave drying equipment can make the surface of the object penetrate electromagnetic wave uniformly at the same time and generate heat energy. Therefore, the microwave drying equipment has good drying uniformity and will not produce endogenous phenomenon of coke.Because microwave energy of microwave drying equipment is controlled to work in metal drying chamber and waveguide, microwave leakage is less, radiation hazards and harmful gas emissions are not produced, waste heat and dust pollution are not produced, food is not polluted, microwave drying equipment is not polluted the environment.
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