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Coconut trees are mainly produced in islands in Asia and the Pacific, in Africa and in the south-central part of the Americas, and have high yields. Coconut meat is usually dried into dried coconut. Coconut oil is extracted from dried coconut. Fresh coconut meat contains 30%-40% oil and 50% water. Dryed coconut contains 60%-70% oil and 4%-7% water. Coconut oil has special fragrance. In 2000, the world coconut oil output was 3.31 million tons. The Philippines was the largest supplier of coconut oil in the world, followed by Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New and Guinea.
Coconut meat tastes good, as sweet and delicious as most other fruits, and is rich in nutrition. Studies have shown that crude fibers and proteins in coconut meat are very effective in reducing cholesterol absorption in vivo, which can help digestion and absorption, reduce blood lipids and greatly benefit human metabolism. At the same time, coconut meat is rich in magnesium and potassium, and magnesium ions can reduce the content of LDL. Potassium examples can maintain the body's water balance, osmotic pressure balance and acid-base balance. Balance, prevent metabolic disorders. Coconut meat can be eaten raw, but also processed into coconut sugar, coconut powder, coconut cake and other coconut snacks, a variety of types, and preserve the unique fragrance and taste of coconut. In China, coconut meat is mainly used for processing various coconut snacks.
The melting point of coconut oil is only 24-27 C, although its saturated fatty acid content is more than 90%. It is semi-solid at room temperature. The melting points of lauric acid, myristic acid and palmitic acid are 44 C, 54 C and 63 C respectively. The difference between the highest melting point and the lowest melting point is only 19 C, and the melting point of triglycerides is only 19 C. The main components of coconut oil are lauric acid, myristic acid and palmitic acid. The plastic range of coconut oil is narrow. The hard part of coconut oil extracted is often used as the raw material of cocoa butter and margarine. The flavor of coconut oil is mainly attributed to the trace presence of delta-lactone and gamma-lactone, which makes coconut oil have a creamy flavor.
The efficient operation of the screw oil press requires steaming and tempering to control the temperature of coconut billet between 91 and 93 degrees C. Under the condition of moisture below 91 degrees C and above 4%, the oil yield of coconut billet is low, while over 93 degrees C and moisture content below 3%, the oil yield of dark oil and tar cake from coconut billet is low. The fines screened out and precipitated should not exceed 10% of fresh raw materials in order to avoid the formation of fines in the steaming and tempering stage and then press.
Coconut meat processing methods are mainly divided into dry processing technology and wet processing technology. Dry processing technology is a traditional processing method, which first dehydrates coconut meat into coconut dried, and then extracts coconut oil from coconut dried. The wet processing technology is based on fresh coconut meat as raw material, directly processed into coconut oil or other useful ingredients. Compared with the traditional processing methods, wet processing has the advantages of high investment and complex technology, but it can extract all kinds of effective ingredients of coconut directly, and the product or yield is high and the quality is high.
Post-pressing process: oil from screw press is transported to screen and clarifying tank, and particles are separated. The latter will be mixed with raw materials into the system for reprocessing. The upper clean oil per ton should be mixed with 10 kg of clay. After cleaning through safety filter, coconut oil (cake) filtered is stored or further processed, and the filtered coconut oil is put into granulation, bagged and sent to animal feed. Material factory.
Wet processing: In the process of wet processing, raw materials are fresh coconut meat. In addition to product oil, other edible by-products obtained from coconut oil include coconut powder, protein, carbohydrates and vitamins. In order to make this process more widely commercialized, it is important to emphasize the following advantages: high quality oil can be obtained and nutritious (ingredient) by-products can be recovered, while the latter is lost in coconut drying.
The mature coconut is shelled, the separated coconut meat is peeled and the outer seed coat is removed. The seed coat was extracted as a by-product. Cut coconut meat is crushed by wedge, dental plate crusher and drum crusher. The coconut juice is extracted from the ground powder by a screw press. The coconut juice is filtered through the sieve conveyer and centrifuged to separate the oil layer. The air is heated to reduce a small amount of water in the oil to 0.1% to 0.2%. Generally speaking, 6.8t "natural" coconut oil can be extracted from fresh coconut meat of 25t, and the milk is removed by spray drying to recover protein and carbohydrates. The screw press is used to grind the residue into powder to recover oil and make coconut powder.
Refining: The refining of crude oils includes a series of steps to remove impurities in glycerin. Make the product edible and extend shelf life. Impurities include fatty acids, phospholipids, metal ions, pigments, oxides, solid particles and annoying volatile gases. Coconut oil can be refined by any of the following methods: chemical refinement (intermittent or continuous) and physical refinement.
Coconut water has the medicinal value of digestion, diuresis, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory. It can be used to treat hepatitis, gastroenteritis, malaria, skin rash and varicella in clinic. In medicine, coconut water helps digestion and is a detergent for the body. The dehydration caused by gastroenteritis can be transfused directly with tender coconut water instead of saline water. In some countries, the cholera epidemic is that many patients use coconut water for intravenous injection. During the war, Hainan soldiers also used coconut water for intravenous injection to maintain physical strength. When mineral poisoning occurs, toxins can be excreted by drinking coconut water.Coconut water can be used as fresh-keeping agent. It can prolong the vase life of cut flowers. It is safe, simple and economical. It is a natural fresh-keeping agent for flowers. Experiments show that coconut water contains cytokines or hormones, which can preserve vegetable green and slow down the drying rate . In the fresh-keeping of flowers, the coconut water solution with 40%-60% concentration is better than that with chemical agents.
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