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Walnuts, together with almonds, cashew nuts and hazelnuts, are known as the "Four Big Nuts in the World". Walnut is rich in nutrition, rich in protein, fat, minerals and vitamins. Walnut processing is divided into primary processing and deep processing. The primary processing mainly includes peeling, cleaning, drying, radio frequency insecticide, shell breaking, shell separation and storage, while deep processing refers to the processing of walnut oil, walnut powder, walnut milk and walnut leisure food.
A large number of walnuts need to be processed every year in China. Up to now, the traditional manual processing mode is still used in most of the initial processing of walnuts in China, only a few of which use green peeling machine and cleaning machine, while most of the shell breaking, kerneling, separation and grading of walnut kernels are completed by manual. Artificial processing is not only inefficient, long processing cycle, poor sanitary conditions, walnut kernels are liable to secondary pollution, but also the processing process is not easy to be managed. The traditional preliminary processing mode of artificial walnut is increasingly uneconomical, and can not meet the growing demand for walnut.
Walnut shelling microwave drying equipment. At present, walnut drying includes microwave drying, electrothermal drying, far-infrared drying and hot air circulation drying. The temperature of drying chamber should first be low and then high, and can not exceed 40 C. Excessive temperature can deteriorate the fat in the nucleolus, which is difficult to find at that time. After several weeks of storage, it will be spoiled and inedible. For microwave drying equipment, energy consumption, thermal efficiency and production capacity are the indicators to measure the quality of drying equipment. Walnut drying equipment is to load walnuts at the top of the box, unload walnuts by the unloading door at the bottom of the box, and transport walnuts into and out of the drying equipment with a conveyor, so as to reduce the use of artificial walnuts when packing.
Walnut Shell Breaking and Shell Kernel Separation Equipment. The production line of walnut shell-breaking and shell-kernel separation is mainly composed of lifter, walnut shell-breaking machine, walnut kernel classifier and shell-kernel separation system. When working, the original walnut is graded first, and then it enters a crushing machine. After crushing, it enters a walnut kernel grading machine. After grading, the walnut shell and kernel are guided into the shell-kernel separation system to realize the separation of walnut shell and kernel. The separated shells and kernels are discharged from the shell outlet and the shell outlet respectively. A small number of walnuts with incomplete shell-kernels separation enter the secondary shell breaker to break the shell again and separate the shell and kernels by grading. After processing with the whole set of equipment, walnut kernels were eventually classified into five grades: crushed residue, 1/2 kernels, 1/4 kernels, 1/8 kernels and 1/16 kernels. At present, the shell breaking rate of the shell breaker developed in Xinjiang can reach 98%, the separation rate of shell kernels can reach 60%, the head dew kernels rate can reach 50%, and the high dew kernels rate can reach more than 60%.
The research of food production technology and engineering can improve the quality of walnut products and ensure the nutritional value of walnut health food by improving the processing methods and increasing the content of science and technology. The mechanism of walnut health effect and the application basis of functional factors are also studied. The theoretical basis for further development of walnut is provided by combining traditional medicine and modern nutrition knowledge.
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