Palm oil is currently the second largest edible vegetable oil in the world. Because of the low cost of palm planting and the low price of palm oil, palm oil has a strong competitiveness in the world edible oil market. China has a large population, and the demand for vegetable oil is also increasing. The demand for vegetable oil in China will maintain a growth rate of 5%. By 2010, the total demand will reach 28 million tons.
The crude oil extracted from the pulp and kernels of the palm fruit (Oil Palm Fruit) is refined, deodorized and bleached to produce palm tung oil products.A mixture of glycerol. As a kind of oil, it is a relatively complete energy source. It contains higher unsaturated fatty acid than saturated fatty acid. Palm oil contains moderate linoleic acid. It does not have trans fatty acid isomers like other oxidized oils. It is rich in vitamin A (500-700 ppm) and vitamin E (500-800ppm), and has high edible value. It is used in food, chemical industry, medicine and light weight.There are many uses in industry and textile, such as margarine, shortening and cocoa butter, cosmetics and soap. Palm products are generally divided into palm palm olein, palm oil, palm stearin and palm kernel oil, among which the most common and most imported are the first three.
We always say that the taste of olive oil is the taste of extra virgin olive oil, not refined olive oil, pure olive oil. Extra-virgin olive oil is the only natural edible oil without heat treatment and chemical treatment, but with stone mill or Teaseeds oil machinery. All kinds of natural nutrients and active substances can be completely preserved by oil machinery pressing processing, and the nutrients are almost not destroyed. Olive oil is mainly composed of unsaturated fatty acids and contains no cholesterol. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid are necessary for human body, but human body cannot synthesize them by itself, excessive intake is harmful to human body. The ratio of oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid contained in olive oil is exactly what the human body needs. It is similar to human milk, which is not found in other vegetable oils. In addition, olive oil is also rich in fat-soluble vitamins E, K, A and water-soluble vitamins C, B1, B2, calcium, zinc, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, polyphenol, methyl ketone, squalene and other trace elements. It is one of the foods rich in natural antioxidants. Eat often, can improve digestive system function, stimulative bile is secreted, prevent gallstone, gastritis, constipation, duodenum ulcer. It can promote the absorption of calcium, promote the development of children's bones, brain and nervous system, and prevent osteoporosis in the elderly. Vitamin E in elemene oil is a vasoprotective agent that lowers cholesterol and triglycerides.The purpose of oil refining is to remove impurities and reach the standard of finished edible oil. The main process is: crude oil degumming neutralization decolorization deodorization separation. Water hydration degumming, alkali neutralization or vapor distillation deacid, adsorbent activated clay or activated carbon decolorization, high temperature and negative pressure deodorization and removal of low boiling point volatile fumes.
Neutralization deacidification is a process which has a great impact on product quality and price. If there is a problem in neutralization process, it will bring difficulties to each process after decolorization and reduce product quality and yield. There are two methods of neutralization, physical and chemical. In principle, physical refining, stripping distillation and deacidification should be the preferred process for oil refining. Chemical neutralization, i.e. using sodium hydroxide to neutralize free fatty acid in crude oil, will produce soap-feet and wastewater. But the choice of physical refining or chemical refining depends mainly on the quality of crude oil. In view of many problems in reality, Current grease processing plants are often equipped with two sets of equipment, Chemical refining method is still indispensable. Adding caustic soda or soda to the oil to neutralize the free fatty acids in the oil. This is a very important operation. Because caustic soda can not only react with fatty acid to form soap feet, but also react with neutral oil. The use of caustic soda in batch alkali refining can reduce the consumption of free fatty acid. However, its reaction performance is weak. Therefore, it can not remove some impurities that can only act on caustic soda, such as pigments, proteins, chlorophyll and heavy metals. The separation of soap foot can be done by centrifugation.
Decolorization is one of the most important processes in the process of oil refining. In addition to removing pigments from oil, it can also reduce the content of phospholipids, peroxide value, soap and metal ions, thus improving the color, flavor and oxidation stability of oil, and providing good conditions for further refining hydrogenation and deodorization of oil. At present, the most commonly used method of oil decolorization is activated clay adsorption decolorization, that is, using clay as a material with strong selective adsorption, to remove pigments dissolved in oil or dispersed in oil by colloidal particles and other impurities under certain conditions. Raw Oil-Metering-Premixing-Heating-Decolorization-Filtration-Primary Essential Oil-Safety Filtration-Decolorization Oil.After measuring, the oil is preheated to 80-90 C. All the oil is pre-mixed with activated clay, and then sent to decolorization tower for decolorization. The mixing of oil and activated clay is carried out at atmospheric pressure, and all pre-mixing is carried out at higher temperature, which avoids the oxidation of oil caused by heating to the greatest extent and ensures the quality of oil products. After decolorization, oil and waste clay are separated by filtration method. Vertical vane filter and plate-frame filter are often used for continuous decolorization of oil in China.
The control items of refining process include: raw oil needs to be tested for acid value, water content and phospholipid content. Quality management departments need to report the test results of raw materials to the production department in time, so that the production department can adjust the amount and concentration of phosphoric acid and sodium hydroxide according to the test results. Degumming and deacidification processes in refining production need to be tested or controlled, including acid value, soap content and phosphorus content of the desoaping oil, the main purpose of which is to check whether the oil is fully degummed, deacidified and washed; the decolorization process in refining production needs to detect the color of the decolorized oil, mainly to determine whether the amount of clay is added and whether the decolorization effect is good; the deodorization process in refining production needs roots. The acid value, color, odor and peroxide value of deodorized oil (finished oil) were detected according to the set internal control standards. The refining process also needs to test the degumming, deacidification, decolorization and deodorization waste materials, determine the free fatty acid content of soap foot and distilled fatty acid, to evaluate the neutral oil content of soap foot and distilled fatty acid, and check the oil content of washing water and waste clay. When a certain item does not meet the set standards, it is necessary to contact the process department in time to check whether each item meets the process standards and whether the equipment is running normally. After troubleshooting, a new round of quality inspection is needed.
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